Prevalence of Dysmenorrhea, its Effect on Class Attendance and Treatment Pattern Among Medical, Nursing and Para-Medical Female Students of a University in Etawah District
Keywords:Dysmenorrhea, Prevalence, Menstrual Pain, Painful Menstruation, Female students
Background: Dysmenorrhea is defined as cramping pain in the lower
abdomen occurring just before or during menstruation. Primary
dysmenorrhea is responsible for significant loss of class/ work attendance.
Many studies have also reported that self-medication is common among
female students. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the scenario
in medical, nursing, and paramedical female students.
Aims and Objectives: We conducted this study to determine the
prevalence of dysmenorrhea and assess its associated symptoms, loss
of class attendance, and the treatment pattern among female students
pursuing medical, nursing, and paramedical courses.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on the female students
pursuing medical, nursing, and paramedical courses at a university in
Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was used to
collect the data and analyzed using SPSS version 24 (IBM, Chicago, USA).
Result: A total of 786 female students participated in the study. A high
prevalence (77%) of dysmenorrhea was reported. Of the students with
dysmenorrhea, only 41 sought medical help while 269 self-medicated
for the pain; the most consumed painkiller was found to be Mefenamic
acid+ Dicyclomine HCL. The family history (X2 = 17.2, P-value <0.001)
and academic performance (X2 =80.8, P-value<0.001) were significantly
associated with dysmenorrhea.
Conclusion: The findings of this research establish dysmenorrhea as
a serious public health problem. It contributes to absenteeism and
impairs everyday tasks, resulting in low academic achievement. Due to
the widespread availability of over-the-counter medications, only few
women seek medical counsel.
How to cite this article:
Takhelchangbam N, Agarwal T, Saxena D,
Pathak P, Soni K, Jain PK, Singh NP. Prevalence
of Dysmenorrhea, Its Effect on Class Attendance
and Treatment Pattern Among Medical, Nursing
and Para-Medical Female Students of a University
in Etawah District. Int J HealthCare Edu & Med
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
[Internet]. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods - ACOG
[cited 2021 Jan 30]. Available from: https://www.
Calls KA. Dysmenorrhea [cited 2021 July 28].
Available from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/
Omidvar S, Bakouei F, Amiri FN, Begum K. Primary
ysmenorrhea and menstrual symptoms in Indian
female students: Prevalence, Impact and Management.
Glob J Health Sci. 2016;8(8):53632. doi:10.5539/gjhs.
v8n8p135. [Pubmed] [Google Scholar]
Payne LA, Rapkin AJ, Seidman LC, Zeltzer LK, Tsao
JCI. Experimental and procedural pain responses in
primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review. J Pain
Res. 2017;10:2233-2246. doi:10.2147/JPR.S143512.
[Pubmed] [Google Scholar]
Ju H, Jones M, Mishra G. The prevalence and risk factors
of dysmenorrhea. Epidemiol Rev. 2014;36(1):104-
doi:10.1093/epirev/mxt009. [Pubmed] [Google
Zannoni L, Giorgi M, Spagnolo E, Montanari G, Villa
G, Seracchioli R. Dysmenorrhea, absenteeism from
school, and symptoms suspicious for endometriosis in
adolescents. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2014;27(5):258-
Agarwal AK, Agarwal A. A study of dysmenorrhea during
menstruation in adolescent girls. Indian J Community
Med. 2010;35(1):159-164. doi:10.4103/0970-
62586. [Pubmed] [Google Scholar]
Singh A, Kiran D, Singh H, Nel B, Singh P, Tiwari P.
Prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea: a problem
related to menstruation, among first and second year
female medical students. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.
;52(4):389-397. [Google Scholar]
Azagew AW, Kassie DG, Walle TA. Prevalence of primary
dysmenorrhea, its intensity, impact and associated
factors among female students’ at Gondar town
preparatory school, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Womens
Health. 2020;20(1):1-7. doi:10.1186/s12905-019-0873-
Unsal A, Ayranci U, Tozun M, Arslan G, Calik E.
Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on
quality of life among a group of female university
students. Ups J Med Sci. 2010;115(2):138-145.
doi:10.3109/03009730903457218. [Pubmed] [Google
Fatima A, Mamatha KR, Ambika B, Rajarathna K.
Self-medication practice in primary dysmenorrhea
among medical and paramedical students - a crosssectional questionnaire study. Natl J Physiol Pharm
Pharmacol. 2017;7(5):458-463. doi:10.5455/
njppp.2017.7.1233424122016. [Pubmed] [Google
Kural M, Noor NN, Pandit D, Joshi T, Anjali P. Menstrual
characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in
college going girls. J Fam Med Prim care. 2015;4(3):426-
[Pubmed] [Google Scholar]
Copyright (c) 2021 Nilima Takhelchangbam, Tanya Agarwal, Deepanshi Saxena, Pooja Pathak, Kanchan Soni, Naresh Pal Singh, Pankaj Kumar Jain
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.