Development of Disease/ Insect-pest Diagnosis and Treatment Knowledge base for Pulse Crops


  • Devraj Principal Scientist, Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Meenakshi Malik Scientist, Computer Applications and Statistics, ICAR-National Research Centre for IPM, New Delhi, India.


Knowledge-Based System, Pulse, Diseases/ Insect, Diagnosis


Pulses are grown globally reached a volume of 90.48 Million Tons in 2020 and is further expected to 114.49 Million Tons by 2026. Amongst different pulse producing countries, India ranks first of the global pulse production. Over a dozen pulse crops are grown in the country and among these, Chickpea, Pigeonpea, Mungbean, Urdbean, Lentil and Pea are the major important pulse crops in the country grown together in more than 80% of the total area under pulses and contributing around 70% grain yield. Although these crops have yield potential of above 2000 kg/ ha, the all India average productivity of chickpea is only 950-1000 kg/ha and of pigeonpea is a meagre 800-850 kg/ ha only. Among the major problems limiting their yield, biotic stresses are the most important. Under biotic stresses, insect pests and diseases are considered more important than other factors. Around 26-30% crop is annually lost due to diseases and insect pests causing nearly Rs. 4500 crores loss to the national exchequer. If this huge loss could be prevented, there would be no pulse shortage in the country in the years to come. Thus, it is a great challenge to the Scientists, who are supposed to tackle it, have to contemplate that how to reduce this unprecedented loss which can be answered by proper and timely diagnosis at a very initial stage and follow up proper, timely, cost effective and eco-friendly management practices by the resource poor pulse growers. Each disease and insect-pest has its own symptoms or characteristics. Farmers do not know about these symptoms, so farmers and extension workers need rapid access to diagnose the disease damaging a particular pulse crop. In order to have a successful pulse crop and remain competitive, the modern farmers often rely on agricultural specialists to assist them in decision making. Unfortunately, pulse specialists are not always available for consultation at the nick of the time. To solve this problem, Knowledge-Based System (KBS) may become powerful tools and a dire need of the day to the farmers, extension workers and Government officials. On same line the present work was initiated for designing and developing a Knowledge base for identification and control of diseases/ insect-pests in pulses.

How to cite this article:
Devraj, Malik M. Development of Disease/ Insect-pest Diagnosis and Treatment Knowledge base for Pulse Crops. Int J Agric Env Sustain 2021; 3(2): 1-7.


Adams SS, Stevension WR, Delhotal P et al. An expert system for diagnosis of post-harvest potato diseases. EPPO Bulletin 2008; 20(2): 341-347.

Chakrabarti DK, Chakraborty P. Field Note: A Diseases Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 2007; 13(1): 81-82.

Devraj, Chaturvedi SK. VRIS : An information system for varieties of pulse crops. Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources 2004; 17(1): 69-76.

Devraj, Jain R. Development of a knowledge base for identification and control of diseases in pulses. Journal of Computer Science 2006; 1(5): 461-468.

Dhar V, Chaudhary RG. Diseases of pigeonpea and fieldpea and their management. Diseases of field crops and their management. 1998; 217-238.

Gonzalez-Andujar JL. Expert System for Pests, Diseases and weed identification in olive crops. Expert Systems with Applications, available online at

Gonzalez-Diaz L, Martinez-Jimenez P, Bastida F et al. Expert system for integrated plant protection in pepper (Capsicum annuun L.). Expert Systems with Applications. 2009; 36: 8975-8979.

Koumpouros Y, Mahaman BD, Maliappis M et al. Image Processing for distance diagnosis in pest management. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 2004; 44:121-131.

Mahaman BD, Passamb HC, Sideridis AB et al. DIARESIPM: a diagnostic advisory rule-based expert system for integrated pest management in solanaceous crop systems. Agricultural Systems 2003; 76(3): 1119-1135.

Morrison I, Schaefer BA, Smith B. Knowledge Acquisition: The Acquire Approach. First Semi-Annual Conference in Policy Making and Knowledge Systems, Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, California.

Mundankar KY, Sawant SD, Sawant S et al. Knowledge Based Decision Support System for Management of Powdery Mildew Diseases in Grapes. 3rd Indian International Conference on Artificial Intelligence. 2007; 1563-1571.

Nene YL, Reddy MV, Haware MP et al. Field Diagnosis of Chickpea Diseases and their Control. ICRISAT Information Bulletin 1991; 28.

Reed W, Lateef SS, Sithanantham S et al. Pigeonpea and Chickpea Insect Identification Handbook. ICRISAT Information Bulletin 1989; 26.

Singh G, Sharma YR. Diseases of chickpea and their management. Diseases of field crops and their management. 1998; 155-178.

Turban E, Aronson JE. Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Pearson Education Asia. 2002.

Zetian Fu, Feng Xu, Yun Zhou et al. Pig-vet: a web-based expert system for pig disease diagnosis. Expert System with Applications 2005; 29: 93-103.